Molecular dating and biogeography of fig pollinating wasps
The authors concluded that, despite lack of resolution from the nuclear markers, the data supported the existence of four species within the `]) could be distinguished by morphology (colour) alone, and another (clade 1) by relative head length, demonstrating the value of integrating molecular and morphological information and iterative assessment of species boundaries e.g.
[), because there are distinct sub-clades within the main clades.
Symbiotic relationships have contributed to major evolutionary innovations, the maintenance of fundamental ecosystem functions, and the generation and maintenance of biodiversity.
However, the exact nature of host/symbiont associations, which has important consequences for their dynamics, is often poorly known due to limited understanding of symbiont taxonomy and species diversity.
Posterior node probabilities are indicated for the five species (see Supplementary Information for annotated phylogeny).
) does not reveal a clear barcode gap in cytb data as intraspecific divergences (0¿7.2%) overlap slightly with interspecific divergences (4.3-18.3%).
In this study, we investigate the diversity of pollinator wasps associated with a single widespread fig species, This plant is endemic to Australia and occurs widely in diverse habitats, including eucalypt scrub and rainforest, in a roughly 2500 km coastal belt that stretches from tropical northern Queensland to temperate southern New South Wales [ from several regions with the aim of investigating the phylogeography of the species.
Instead, cytb data revealed four deep clades, suggesting the presence of cryptic species.
Moreover, even when a described pollinator is known, genetic studies often reveal further pollinator species that are either morphologically cryptic within the one named entity, morphologically distinguishable but not previously sampled, or previously sampled but unrecognised within mixed species collections, e.g. Molecular data have already contributed substantially to rejection of the old 1:1 paradigm of fig/pollinator specificity and should now play a key role, in tandem with morphological analysis, in establishing true patterns of pollinator diversity and variation in plant/pollinator interactions at local and regional scales , because: a) some species may not occur in all parts of the host range, and b) if intraspecific genetic variation is underestimated by sampling few sites, it may be harder to identify the molecular `barcoding gap¿ (or appropriate clades in phylogeny-based methods) between species .Standard barcoding genes and methods were not conclusive, but incorporation of phylogenetic analyses and a recently developed nuclear barcoding gene (ITS2), gave strong support for five pollinator species.